Economie de la connaissance: working papers (RePEc, 22/11/2010)

Source : NEP (New Economics Papers) | RePEc

  • Le Knowledge Management appliqué aux problématiques de développement Durable dans la Supply Chain
Date: 2010
By: B. Ageron (CERAG – Centre d’études et de recherches appliquées à la gestion – CNRS : UMR5820 – Université Pierre Mendès-France – Grenoble II)
M.L. Goury (CERAG – Centre d’études et de recherches appliquées à la gestion – CNRS : UMR5820 – Université Pierre Mendès-France – Grenoble II)
A. Spalanzani (CERAG – Centre d’études et de recherches appliquées à la gestion – CNRS : UMR5820 – Université Pierre Mendès-France – Grenoble II)
URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:halshs-00534785_v1&r=knm
Le concept de développement durable apparaît au début du XXe siècle dans des mouvements écologiques et de protection de la nature. L’expression de ce concept est citée pour la première fois en 1980 dans « La stratégie mondiale de la conservation » qui est l’un des très importants documents qui ont servi à redéfinir l’écologie après la Conférence de Stockholm, publié par l’Union internationale pour la conservation de la nature (UICN). Pour les entreprises, le développement durable est apparu plus tardivement. Des pratiques se sont mises en place depuis la fin des années 90 mais des difficultés majeures persistent. Pour comprendre d’où proviennent certains blocages organisationnels, nous proposons, dans cet article, l’illustrer le modèle de Nonaka (1995) dans un contexte de développement durable dans la supply chain. Après avoir présenté les concepts de gestion des connaissances et de développemen t durable, nous décrirons la méthodologie de notre étude exploratoire ainsi que les premiers résultats
Keywords: Développement durable ; Knowledge Management ; Supply Chain ; Nonaka ; Modèle SECI
  • ICT and Innovation Activities: Evidence for UK SMEs
Date: 2010-11
By: Dolores Añon Higón (Departamento de Economía Aplicada II, Universidad de Valencia)
URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:eec:wpaper:1002&r=knm
There is a continuous commitment of policy makers in the UK to supporting innovation in small and medium firms. For these policy initiatives to be successful, an understanding of the factors driving innovation activities is required. In this study, we focus on the role that Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) play in the innovation performance of UK small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Using data drawn from the 2004 Annual Small Business Survey (ASBS) database, we show that ICT operate primarily as efficiency-enhancing technologies, although specific market oriented applications (i.e. website development) exhibit a potential to create competitive advantage through product innovation.
Keywords: ICT, Product Innovation, Process Innovation, SME, Bivariate Probit
JEL: D24
  • Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Financial Market Cycles
Date: 2010-03-18
By: Josh Lerner
URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:oec:stiaaa:2010/3-en&r=knm
While hard data is difficult to find, the financial crisis appears to have had a substantial negative effect on investors’ willingness to finance innovative entrepreneurship. This dearth of capital is particularly worrisome in light of the widely recognised need for innovative ventures—the so-called “green shoots”— to reignite economic growth after the world-wide recession. A growing body of evidence suggests a strong relationship between entrepreneurship, innovation, and economic growth. This document first reviews the evidence concerning the relationship between innovation and entrepreneurship. It then turns to understanding the consequences of market cycles for these activities. We look at the way that financial considerations impact the innovation investment decision, and innovation in entrepreneurial ventures specifically.<BR>Il est difficile de trouver des données objectives sur la question, mais la crise financière semble avoir eu un effet négatif sensible sur la disposition des investisseurs à financer les entreprises innovantes. Cette pénurie de capital est particulièrement inquiétante à la lumière du besoin largement admis d’entreprises innovantes – les fameuses « jeunes pousses » – pour relancer la croissance économique après la récession mondiale. De plus en plus d’éléments laissent à penser qu’il existe un lien fort entre entrepreneuriat, innovation et croissance économique. Ce document s’ouvre sur un examen des informations disponibles concernant la relation entre innovation et entrepreneuriat. Je m’efforce ensuite de cerner les conséquences des cycles des marchés sur ces activités. J’examine la façon dont les considérations financières se répercutent sur les décisions d’investissement en matière d’innovation, et plus précisément s’agissant de l’innovation réalisée dans les jeunes entreprises.
  • Knowledge transfer in the Social Sciences and the Humanities: informal links in a Public Research Organization
Date: 2010-11-11
By: Castro-Martínez, Elena
Molas-Gallart, Jordi
Olmos-Peñuela, Julia
URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ing:wpaper:201012&r=knm
This study analyzes the characteristics of knowledge transfer in the Social Sciences and the Humanities in the Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC). CSIC is the largest public sector research organization in the country and has a substantial set of activities in the Social Sciences and Humanities. We analyze the variety of users and beneficiaries that access some of the results of CSIC ́s research in this field, and the different forms of use. We identify a wide range of transfer processes and discuss the organizational and analytical challenges that such variety poses. The study shows that a substantial number of research groups had links with non-academic beneficiaries and were looking for ways to increase such relationships. Many of these links were informal and occasional in nature, of limited reach, and invisible to the parent organization (CSIC). We derive some policy and management implications from thes e conclusions. The variety of transfer processes suggests that, to support efficient knowledge transfer, policies and knowledge transfer management processes must be differentiated and tailored to the specific characteristics of knowledge production and use in the Social Sciences and Humanities.
Keywords: Knowledge transfer; Humanities; Social Sciences; Public Research Organization; Policy; Informality
JEL: I23
  • Regional Knowledge and the Emergence of an Industry: Laser Systems Production in West Germany, 1975Ð2005
Date: 2010-11
By: Guido Buenstorf
Michael Fritsch
Luis Medrano
URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:egu:wpaper:1016&r=knm
We analyze the emergence and spatial evolution of the German laser systems industry. Regional knowledge in the related field of laser sources, as well as the presence of universities with physics or engineering departments, is conducive to the emergence of laser systems suppliers. The regional presence of source producers is also positively related to entry into laser systems. One important mechanism behind regional entry is the diversification of upstream laser source producers into the downstream systems market. Entry into the materials processing submarket appears to be unrelated to academic knowledge in the region, but the presence of laser source producers and the regional stock of laser knowledge are still highly predictive in this submarket.
Keywords: Innovation, regional knowledge, laser technology, emerging industries, diversification
JEL: L22
  • Network dynamics in regional clusters: The perspective of an emerging economy
Date: 2010-10
By: Elisa Giuliani
URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:egu:wpaper:1014&r=knm
Regional clusters are spatial agglomerations of firms operating in the same or connected industries, which enable innovation and economic performance for firms. A wealth of empirical literature shows that one of key elements of the success of regional clusters is that they facilitate the formation of local inter-organizational networks, which act as conduits of knowledge and innovation. While most studies analyze the benefits and characteristics of regional cluster networks and focus on advanced economies and high tech Ôhot spotsÕ, this paper advances with the existing literature by analyzing network dynamics and taking an emerging economyÕs perspective. Using longitudinal data of a wine cluster in Chile and stochastic actor-oriented models for network dynamics, this paper examines what micro-level effects influence the formation of new knowledge ties among wineries. It finds that the coexistence of cohesion effects (r eciprocity and transitivity) and the presence of inter-firm knowledge base heterogeneity contribute to the stability of an informal hierarchical network structure over time. Empirical results have interesting implications for cluster competitiveness and network studies, and for the burgeoning literature on corporate behavior in emerging economies.
Keywords: Regional clusters, knowledge networks, network dynamics, wine industry, Chile

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