This article analyzed the production and marketing activities of the Agricultural Co-operatives Association established in Takedate Village in the Tsugaru district of Aomori Prefecture in 1907. In the early stages of the Meiji period, this area was considered as backward in terms of commodity production and circulation. However, the Agricultural Co-operatives Association, Takedate-kumiai had been highly evaluated for its business marketing across the nation, and had built a brand name for itself. Takedate-kumiai was the cutting-edge case of the industrial associations which is supposed to have spread out in earnest in the 1930s. We obtained the followings results. (1) By means of production inspection before packaging, the association made an effort toward not only the production of high-quality apples but also their trusted shipment in accordance with the brand name and standards established for itself. All these were ex tremely advanced efforts in agricultural commodity transactions. (2) However, until the early 1910s, the business sales of the association encountered certain problems. One problem was that the association partners had illegally sold apples to merchants and therefore, could not gather enough apples to sell. Another problem was that the specification wholesalers in the great city did not make all their payments smoothly. While being such status, the association thought much of the trust and the autonomy at the partners and the wholesales. It supported without laying down compulsion and a penalty regulation. (3) The problems mentioned in the above point were solved in the latter half of 1910s. The association received special awarding in 1916 and became flagrant nationwide and succeeded in establishing a brand name image. The partners recognized that apples sold on behalf of the association should be done so at favorable prices. As the associationfs apples became famous in the markets of consuming regions, wholesalers came to recognize special wholesale contracts with this association as an honor. Consequently, the association grew to be an economic organization that took the initiative in product sales to wholesalers even in important cities such as Tokyo.
Japanese Economic History, Agricultural Co-operatives Association, Brand, Marketing, Market
Social Networks, Personalized Advertising, and Privacy Controls
This paper investigates how internet users’ perception of control over their personal information affects how likely they are to click on online advertising. The paper uses data from a randomized field experiment that examined the relative effectiveness of personalizing ad copy to mesh with existing personal information on a social networking website. The website gave users more control over their personally identifiable information in the middle of the field test. The website did not change how advertisers used anonymous data to target ads. After this policy change, users were twice as likely to click on personalized ads. There was no comparable change in the effectiveness of ads that did not signal that they used private information when targeting. The increase in effectiveness was larger for ads that used less commonly available private information to personalize their message. This suggests that giving users the perce ption of more control over their private information can be an effective strategy for advertising-supported websites.
Social Networks, Privacy, Online Advertising
Contribution of individual to collective brands
Francisco Mas Ruiz (Universidad de Alicante)
Juan Luis Nicolau Gonzálbez (Universidad de Alicante)
Traditionally, literature estimates the equity of a brand or its extension but it pays little attention to collective brand equity even though collective branding is increasingly used to differentiate the homogenous products of different firms or organizations. We propose an approach that estimates the incremental effect of individual brands (or the contribution of individual brands) on collective brand equity through the various stages of a consumer hierarchical buying choice process in which decisions are nested: “whether to buy”, “what collective brand to buy” and “what individual brand to buy”. This proposal follows the approach of the Random Utility Theory, and it is theoretically argued through the Associative Networks Theory and the cybernetic model of decision making. The empirical analysis carried out in the area of collective brands in Spanish tourism finds a three-stage hierarchical sequence, and es timates the contribution of individual brands to the equity of the collective brands of “Sun, Sea and Sand” and of “World Heritage Cities”. La literatura ha puesto énfasis en el análisis del valor de una marca o sus extensiones, pero se ha centrado menos en el valor de la marca colectiva, aunque su uso empresarial sea cada vez mayor con el fin de diferenciar los productos homogéneos de diferentes organizaciones. Proponemos un enfoque que estima el efecto incremental de las marcas individuales (es decir, la contribución individual de cada marca) en el valor de la marca colectiva a través de un proceso de compra jerárquica en varias etapas en el que las decisiones están anidadas: “si comprar o no”, “qué marca colectiva comprar” y “qué marca individual comprar”. Esta propuesta sigue el enfoque de la Teoría de la Utilidad Aleatoria, y se argumenta a través de la Teoría de Redes Asociativas y el Modelo Cibernético de Decisión. La aplicación empÍ rica desarrollada en el área de las marcas turísticas colectivas d etecta una secuencia en tres etapas, y estima la contribución de las marcas individuales en el valor de las marcas colectivas “Sol y playa” y “Ciudades Patrimonio de la Humanidad”.
valor de marca colectiva, proceso de elección multi-etápico, Modelo Logit con coeficientes aleatorios collective brand equity, consumer multi-stage choice process, random parameter Logit Model
The convergence of corporate social responsibility practices
Purpose – This paper tries to explain why many socially-responsible firms appear to converge on a standard set of corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices instead of striving to differentiate themselves from rivals and achieve competitive advantage. Design/methodology/approach – Three explanations of this convergence are presented: herd behaviour, institutional isomorphism, and strategic cooperation. The different empirical predictions of these theories are laid down. The resulting framework is used to analyse a recent self-regulatory scheme launched by the steel industry, in which knowledge-sharing was used to stimulate poor performers to curb carbon dioxide emissions. Findings – Social practices of firms are very often driven by pressures to conform, instead of pressures to perform. Even firms that want to be innovative may be forced by stakeholder requests to adopt passive and imitative behaviour. Practica l implications – The paper suggests that there are two types of CSR – convergent and divergent – and that firms need to establish which type of CSR best fits their needs before they address the issues raised by stakeholders. Originality/value – The literature on CSR focuses on the relationship between stakeholders and single firms. The paper tries to add to this literature by analysing the relationship between stakeholders and industries. The paper also contributes to the debate on the financial benefits of CSR by arguing that in industries where the convergent type of CSR is dominant researchers should not expect above-average returns for socially-responsible firms.